History of NSE: From Idea to Reality

History of NSE: From Idea to Reality
History of NSE

Did you know that there are various stock exchanges in India, including BSE, NSE, CSE, India INX, MSE, MCX, NCDEX, and more? Beginning in 1992, NSE (The National Stock Exchange) has successfully secured its position as the largest stock exchange in India and the eleventh-largest in the world. Ashishkumar Chauhan, the CEO of NSE quoted, “Due to the use of mobile phones and applications, the numbers of traders are increasing everyday.”

Now National Stock Exchange has evolved into a sophisticated electronic market, ranking fourth for equity trading and offering seven capital market categories. But what’s the significant history of NSE that has taken it so far in terms of growth and evolution? Let’s dive deeper into the old books.

What is National Stock Exchange (NSE)

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is the largest stock exchange in India. It is a platform that allows people to buy and sell financial stuff like stocks, bonds, and derivatives just like a shop. Established in Mumbai, Maharashtra, NSE began back in 1992 as the dematerialised online stock trading market. NSE is the first exchange to initiate screen-based or electronic trading and was introduced by insurance companies, leading banks, financial institutions and intermediates. Currently, the managing director and chief executive officer of the national stock exchange is Ashishkumar Chauhan.

NSE is a crucial body that allows companies to put their stocks up for sale, and people trade them. NSE is one of the two main stock markets in India, with the other one being the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). It is a big part of the country’s economy and shows how the Indian financial market is consistently growing. Working as an authorized regulator for investors, NSE has emerged into a multi-faceted organization.

The key broad market indices listed on NSE are Nifty 50, Nifty Next 50, Nifty 100, Nifty 200, Nifty 500, Nifty Midcap 50, Nifty Smallcap 100, etc. The major sectoral indices of NSE are Nifty Bank, Nifty Auto, Nifty FMCG, Nifty IT, Nifty Pharma, Nifty PSU bank, etc.

The Birth of NSE

The Birth of NSE

The History of NSE of India was constituted in 1992 and authorized by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) in 1993. The organization began functioning in April 1993, initially focusing on the wholesale debt market. They introduced their own cash market segment in 1994. Over time, it has grown significantly and has become one of the leading stock exchanges in the world with an average daily turnover of over INR 527.5 billion.

Since its establishment, the National Stock Exchange has worked tirelessly to transform the Indian exchanges through advanced technology and innovation. In 1995, NSE introduced its fully automated screen-based trading system, making it easier to buy or sell stocks electronically. The system offered greater time and effort convenience with faster trade execution and improved transparency. And by the end of 1999, it had completely replaced manual trading and become the first organization to achieve this milestone.

Evolution & Expansion

Well, the evolution of NSE began in the 20s when it launched another technological breakthrough. In 2003, NSE did something cool – with their internet-based remote trading facilities, they let regular people from all over India trade stocks online. Traders didn’t need to go to a fancy office or a special room and could practice trading through their own computers.

In 2009, NSE came up with two excellent initiatives. First, they made it easier for people to invest in mutual funds with their electronic mutual fund platform – Mutual Fund Service System (MFSS). Along with this, they launched Index Based Derivatives contracts, offering investors something to help protect money when the stock market goes up and down. Just like having an umbrella when it rains.

In 2010, NSE introduced the Depository Receipts product on their platform. This made it possible for global companies to raise capital from Indian investors without having to join an Indian stock market. The same year, they started the National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX), where people can trade things like oil and gold online. With this, NSE introduced other financial institutions such as ICICI Bank and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC).

The Expansion – Diversification of Platform

After the inception of cool tools and technologies, NSE became home to various indices (sectorial and other) such as IT Index, FMCG index, S&P CNX Nifty Fifty index, CNX 100 index, and CNX 500 Index, etc. This gave investors the opportunity and options to create a wide portfolio and increase their appetite according to manageable risk.

NSE has been around for a long time and they keep coming up with new ideas, even when things get tricky with rules and politics. With the ability to innovate and stay ahead of the curve, it has modified its facilities with changing regulations, external factors, SEBI modifications, and political changes. They’ve shown that even a small group can do big things when they have support.

Significance and Impact

Significance and Impact

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is a major hub for trading different derivatives, including futures and options contracts. It has revolutionized how people invest in stocks, offering everyone an easy and accessible way to exchange securities. Thanks to NSE- now trading is just one click away. It plays a crucial role in boosting the overall economy of India. Not only this, it has helped businesses grow and created more job opportunities in both the finance and trading sectors.

It is an international outlook that has brought global opportunities to Indian investors. With more money exchange, NSE has transformed the execution – making it quicker, faster, and easier. Although BSE started before NSE and functionality of both bodies are similar, the impact of NSE’s technology advance in the stock market sector is long-term. Let’s take a look at a few:

  • NSE made it easy for everyone to invest in stocks, no matter where they live.
  • It helps businesses get the money they need to grow and create jobs.
  • NSE’s tech advancements made stock trading simple and convenient.
  • Even when things get tough, NSE stays strong and stable.
  • NSE doesn’t just handle money; it helps people and the country grow.

Benchmark index of NSE

Benchmark index of NSE

Nifty 50 is the benchmark index of the National Stock Exchange (NSE). It comprises top 50 and most liquid listed companies of NSE with high trading volumes. Also, these 50 companies are from various sectors that help in giving the collective outlook of the market. NIFTY 50 is a widely used benchmark of the Indian equity market and it also reflects the performance of the country’s major industries. 

NIFTY 50 index is calculated using free-float market capitalization, it gives confidence to the investors that reliable information about the market is being presented to them. Regular reviews and adjustments are made abiding by the SEBI guidelines to ensure NIFTY 50 remains up to date with the most significant and actively traded stocks. Also, it is tradeable on the equity market in the FnO segment, giving traders the opportunity to capitalize on its volatility. Investors and fund managers frequently use the Nifty 50 to assess portfolio performance and develop index-based investment products, making it an important part of India’s financial industry.

Functions of NSE

Functions of NSE

Online Trading Facility: NSE first started online trading, providing online platforms for buying and selling securities that include stocks, bonds, and derivatives, ensuring smooth and secure transactions between traders and stock exchanges. 

Constant Market Regulation: It regulates the trading practices to make sure that fair trading is being conducted throughout without harming investor’s interests. 

Responsibility of Listing: Companies can list their shares on NSE for initial public offering, to raise capital from the public seamlessly. 

Market Data and Research: Comprehensive and advanced technical trading and market analysis tools are offered by NSE to aid traders in informed investing and trading. 

Clearing and Settlement: At the end of every trading day, the clear and concise report of settlements and clearing is presented by NSE to give an overview of investments to traders and investments. The settlement process ensures no money is lost between the calculations. 

Indices: The NSE manages various indices under it, like the Nifty 50, which serve as benchmarks for market performance, Nifty Midcap, Nifty pharma, etc.

Educational Initiatives: Various investor education programs are conducted by NSE to improve financial literacy in India and improve investors’ knowledge for the betterment of the country’s future.

Introduction of New Segments: NSE keeps introducing new trading tools and expanding its operations in various segments to increase participation in the stock market. 

Technology Adoption: It employs cutting-edge technology to create a reliable, efficient, and secure trading environment.

Features of NSE

Features of NSE

Here are some features of NSE:

Electronic Trading Platform: The NSE operates on completely electronic and internet-based trading, making it quick and easy to buy and sell securities, without the involvement of any third party. 

Wide Range of Products: NSE offers a wide range of financial instruments, including equities, derivatives (futures and options), debt securities, and mutual funds.

High Liquidity: The high liquidity is ensured by NSE in listed companies, making it easy for investors and traders to execute the bulk trades. 

Transparency: NSE offers real-time data to online brokers and traders and follows strict regulatory compliance, ensuring to maintain transparency in trading activities.

Robust Technology: Advanced technology incorporated by NSE ensures speed, reliability, and security in trading activities.

Global Connectivity: The NSE allows international investments too, attracting international participation in the Indian stock market. 

Comprehensive Indices: NSE offers a variety of indices for tracking the market performance like the Nifty 50, also other indices with sector specifications are there to reflect different market segments which in turn aid in performance benchmarking.

Investor Protection: The NSE works on strict rules and surveillance criteria to ensure investor interests are protected while fair play in the trading activities is being witnessed. 

NSE Listing Benefits

NSE Listing Benefits

Access to Capital: Listing on NSE allows companies to raise capital from the public in the name of investments that initiate from the IPO. 

Enhanced Visibility: Being listed on NSE enhances the visibility, transparency and reliability of the company in the eyes of investors, making it easier for company in raising capital. 

Liquidity: Listed shares have increased liquidity as they are regularly traded by investors and traders. 

Valuation and Pricing: The NSE’s market-driven pricing process aids in the accurate assessment of a company, reflecting its genuine market value.

Benchmarking: Listing companies on the NSE allows gives them the opportunity to be part of popular indian stock market indices like the Nifty 50, facilitating performance benchmarking.

Transparency and Governance: Abiding by NSE’s listing requirements enhances the company’s governance and transparency. 

Investor Base Expansion: The listing attracts a broader range of investors, including institutional and retail investors from both domestic and international markets.

Corporate Image: Being listed on a reputable exchange boosts a company’s public image and credibility, which promotes corporate growth and partnerships.

NSE Objectives 

NSE Objectives 

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) has bold objectives to modernize the Indian stock market. Its goal is to provide a transparent, efficient, and secure environment for secure transactions, guaranteeing that the trading process is quick and accurate. The NSE tries to protect investors’ interests as well as the market’s integrity by maintaining detailed governance and supervision.

One of its primary objectives is to boost market liquidity, making it easier for investors to acquire and sell securities in bulk. This flexibility makes it easier for companies to raise funds through public offerings, which boosts the economy. The NSE is also working to increase financial inclusion by collaborating with a broader range of enterprises, including retail and institutions.

The NSE also emphasizes innovation, creating new financial products and services to match changing market conditions. To assist investors in making informed investment decisions, the NSE provides educational tools and training programmes that foster literacy rather than writing skills.



Although, both of these entities are renowned and reliable stock exchanges platforms in India. However NSE offers trading in equity, debts, and currency derivatives. Here are few points about NSE vs BSE:

AspectNSE (National Stock Exchange)BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange)
EstablishmentFounded in 1992Established in 1875
OwnershipOwned by various financial institutionsListed as a public company
Trading PlatformEquipped with advanced electronic trading systemsMix of electronic and open-outcry trading
Market CapitalizationLargest stock exchange in IndiaOldest stock exchange in Asia, but smaller in terms of market capitalization
Benchmark IndexNifty 50 is the key benchmark indexSensex is the primary benchmark index
LocationMumbai, MaharashtraMumbai, Maharashtra
Trading Hours9:15 AM to 3:30 PM (Indian Standard Time)9:15 AM to 3:30 PM (Indian Standard Time)
IndicesHouses various indices, including Nifty, Nifty Bank, etc.Manages Sensex, BSE 500, and other indices
Ownership StructureOwned by the National Stock Exchange of India LimitedOperated by BSE Limited, a public company
Trading VolumeKnown for higher trading volumesTrades at lower volumes compared to NSE
TechnologyUtilizes advanced technology for tradingCombines electronic trading with open-outcry
Market ReachLarger retail and institutional investor baseBroader retail and institutional participation
Trading MechanismFully automated electronic tradingOffers both electronic and open-outcry trading options
Historical SignificanceEstablished more recently in comparisonHolds historical significance as one of the oldest stock exchanges in the world

Final Words

History of NSE is as exciting as its growth and evolution over the span of time. Its remarkable impact lies in making stock trading easier and boosting India’s economy. NSE has become a game-changer in the capital market of India with its advanced technology, reliable infrastructure, strong fundamental, and relevant regulations for traders. With its modern, adaptable stock market, it offers a stable, reliable platform while offering global investment chances by using technology.


Who started the Indian stock market?

In 1875, the stockbroking business was set in motion by Mr. Premchand Roy Chand, known as the cotton king.

How many companies are listed on the national stock exchange?

National Stock Exchange is like a giant marketplace with over 5,000 companies offering their ‘money shares’ for trade as per the data available on the website.

What led to the establishment of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)?

Like the referee, SEBI was created to ensure everything plays out fair and everyone plays by the rules designed by experts in the Indian stock market. SEBI is a crucial statutory body of the Indian Government which was introduced on 12th April 1992 under the SEBI Act 1992 to promote transparency in the Indian Investment Market. After the Harshad Mehta Scam, the parliament encouraged the development of autonomous bodies that protect the laws, prohibit securities markets, insider trading, and promote market transparency.

What is the significance of the BSE Sensex and Nifty 50?

Just like keeping the update on a cricket match score helps you know who’s winning, the Nifty 50 and Sensex help us interpret the ups and downs in the stock market. Both are the key indices of the Indian stock market and represent approximately 30 traded securities of the BSE. On the flip side, Nifty 50 includes top 50 stocks listed on the NSEs. Performance of both indices the overall health and trends of the Indian stock market. These indexes give traders a quick idea of how all the organizations on the stock market are performing, and that’s why they’re really significant.

How did the COVID-19 pandemic affect the Indian stock market?

Just like a rollercoaster, during COVID-19, the stock market went on a wild ride. People panicked and traders faced significant knock down in the prices. The Sensex index dropped 13.2% on March 23, 2020, which is the highest single, after the Harshad Mehta Scam news released on April 28, 1991. The impact remained for a while but the market recovered completely by the end of October 2020.

What are the Indian Stock Market Timings?

The Indian stock market opens for business at 9:15 AM and closes at 3:30 PM, from Monday to Friday. Although the market also remains closed on national holidays or festivals too.

Which is the biggest stock exchange in India?

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is like the big brother of all stock markets in India. However, BSE was established before and is one of the top 10 largest traded stock exchanges in the world.

When and how did the stock market begin?

The history of stock market beginning traces back to 1611, when the first modern stock trading was created in Amsterdam. The first traded company was Dutch East India which was also the only traded company in exchange history for many years. On the other hand, the Indian stock market started in a rather unique way, back in the 19th century. These people were like the early pioneers who decided to start trading ‘money papers’ which eventually grew as the whole Indian stock market as well.

What factors significantly influence the Indian stock market?

The stock market is like a seesaw and there are several factors that can affect the stock market whether it’s Indian or belongs to another country. Among several factors, things like company earnings, economic news, war, financial reports, and even big events happening around the world make it go up and down.




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